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Crisis and LeviathanCRISIS AND LEVIATHAN: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government
by Robert Higgs

Foreword by Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr.

Part I. Framework

Chapter 1. The Sources of Big Government: A Critical Survey of Hypotheses

    Explanations of the Growth of Government
    Modernization/Public Goods/The Welfare State/Political

Chapter 2. How Much Has Government Grown? Conventional Measures and an Alternative View

    Conventional Measures of the Growth of Government
    The Essence of Big Government: An Alternative View
    Ratchets: Conventional Measures versus Fundamentals

Chapter 3. On Ideology as an Analytical Concept in the Study of Political Economy

    What Is Ideology?
    Ideology and Political Action
    Ideology in Analysis
    Ideology and Rhetoric
    Ideology: Exogenous or Endogenous?

Chapter 4. Crisis, Bigger Government, and Ideological Change: Toward an Understanding of the Ratchet

    A Schematic View of the Problem
    Why Stage II? A Cost-Concealment Hypothesis
    Why State IV? A (Partial) Hypothesis on Ideological Change
    The Task Ahead

Part II. History

Chapter 5. Crisis Under the Old Regime, 1893-1896

    Creative Destruction Ideologically Sustained, 1865-1893
    Depression and Social Unrest, 1893-1896
    Serving the Gold Standard
    Maintaining Law and Order in the Labor Market
    Striking Down the Income Tax

Chapter 6. The Progressive Era: A Bridge to Modern Times

    Economic Development and Political Change, 1898-1916
    The Ideological Winds Shift
    End and Beginning: The Railroad Labor Troubles, 1916-1917

Chapter 7. The Political Economy of War, 1916-1918

    Neutral Prosperity and the Shipping Crisis
    The Preparedness Controversy and New Governmental Powers
    War and Conscription
    Manipulating the Market Economy: The Major Agencies
    Labor Problems and the Railroad Takeover
    Supreme Court Rulings on War Measures
    Legacies, Institutional and Ideological

Chapter 8. The Great Depression: “An Emergency More Serious Than War”

    Economic Rise and Fall, 1922-1933
    What Did Hoover Do?
    Interregnum of Despair
    Emergency, Emergency!
    Planting the First New Deal: The Hundred Days
    Cultivating and Pruning the First New Deal: The Supreme Court
    Legacies, Institutional and Ideological

Chapter 9. The Political Economy of War, 1940-1945

    De Jure Neutrality, De Factor Belligerency, 1939-1941
    More Powers and Price Controls
    The Armed Forces and the Economy
    Work or Fight
    The Supreme Court Also Goes to War
    Legacies, Institutional and Ideological

Chapter 10. Crisis and Leviathan: From World War II to the 1980s

    The Mixed Economy: March into Socialism or Fascism?
    Crisis and Leviathan: The Recent Episodes

Chapter 11. Retrospect and Prospect


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